There are three editions of the WRC bulletin available in the software. For more information about the options available in the editor, see Configuration Editor. InWRC Bulletin was released. It is not an update or a revision of Bulletin simply provides equations in place of the curves found in Bulletin WRC Bulletin provides an analytical tool to evaluate the vessel stresses in the immediate vicinity of a nozzle.Fast image segmentation github
The convention adopted by WRC to define the applicable orientations of the applied loads and stresses for both spherical and cylindrical vessels are shown below. P-axis : Along nozzle centerline and positive entering vessel. M1-axis : Perpendicular to nozzle centerline along convenient global axis. M2-axis : Cross P-axis into M1 axis and the result is M2-axis.
MC-axis : Along vessel centerline and positive to correspond with any parallel global axis. A : Position on vessel at junction along negative M1 axis.
B : Position on vessel at junction along positive M2 axis. C : Position on vessel at junction along positive M2 axis. D : Position on vessel at junction along negative M2 axis. A : Position on vessel at junction along negative MC axis. B : Position on vessel at junction, along positive MC axis.
C : Position on vessel at junction, along positive ML axis. D : Position on vessel at junction, along negative ML axis. Shear axis VC is parallel and in the same direction as the bending axis ML. Shear axis VL is parallel and in the opposite direction as the bending axis MC. All loads and moments are defined locally with respect to the vessel and the nozzle. The following WRC convention system is used for a cylindrical vessel:. The following WRC convention system is used for a spherical vessel:.
WRC is commonly used to conservatively estimate vessel shell stress state at the edge of a reinforcing pad. The stress state in the vessel wall when the nozzle has a reinforcing pad can be estimated by considering a solid plug with an outside diameter equal to the O. Before attempting to use WRC to evaluate the stress state of any nozzle -vessel junction, always verify that the geometric restrictions limiting the application of WRC are not exceeded.
These vary according to the attachment and vessel types. Refer to the WRC bulletin directory for this information. Using WRC is not recommended when the nozzle is very light or when the parameters in the WRC data curves are unreasonably exceeded. Output from WRC includes the figure numbers for the curves accessed, the curve abscissa, and the values retrieved.
Check these outputs against the actual curve in WRC to become familiar with the accuracy of the stresses calculated. For example, if parameters for a particular problem are always near or past the end of the figures curve data, then the calculated stresses may not be reliable.Local has the benefit of being independent of the orientation of the vessel.
The software calculates stresses for sustained, expansion, and occasional loads and compares stress intensities to allowables. Expansion - EXP Secondary thermal expansion loads.
Occasional - OCC Irregularly occurring loads such as wind loads, seismic loads, and water hammer. P - Radial Force Vc - Circ. Shear Force Vl - Long. Shear Force Mc - Circ. Moment Ml - Long. Moment Mt - Torsional Moment. Enter the difference between the peak pressure of the system and the system design pressure. The value is always positive or zero. This value is superimposed onto the system design pressure to evaluate the primary membrane stress due to occasional loads.
The additional thrust load due to this pressure difference is accounted for in the nozzle radial loading if you also select Include Pressure Thrust.
VIII Div. This value should only be used to perform a fatigue analysis. These factors are used for estimating the peak stress intensity due to internal pressure. Instead, the value of peak stress intensity is reported for fatigue effect comparison. Select to compute pressure stresses in the shell and nozzle according to WRC WRC provides a method for calculating stresses in a cylinder-to-cylinder intersection such as cylinder-to-nozzle due to internal pressure and pressure thrust loading. So, this option is only available when the attachment type is round and when no external loads are specified.
Peak stress intensity due to internal pressure is included in the analysis by selecting Include Pressure Stress Indices per Div. For normal elastic analysis, do not select this option or Use Division 2 Stress Indices.
Enter the fillet radius between the nozzle and the vessel shell. A value of 0 sets Kn and Kb to 1. Enter the fillet radius between the pad and the vessel shell.To date, they have published more than bulletins which solves various problems of engineering. If the stresses are found to be within allowable limit then the load and moment values can be accepted without any hesitation. However, there are some boundary conditions that must be satisfied before using WRC.
As indicated by their bulletin titles, WRC can be used for attachments to both spherical and cylindrical shells while WRC only addresses cylinder to cylinder connections. While both bulletins are used for nozzle connection. WRC, on the other hand, is intended only for cylindrical nozzles attached to cylindrical shells. To determine whether WRC bulletin can be used for local stress checking the following geometry guidelines must be met:. The major differences other than the boundary conditions mentioned above are listed below:.
WRC is applicable only for normally perpendicular intersecting two cylindrical shells whereas WRC is applicable for cylindrical as well as spherical shells of any intersection.
The attachments for WRC checking must be hollow but WRC analyzes cylindrical or rectangular attachments that can be rigid or hollow. Other than boundary conditions mentioned above there are few more limitations as mentioned below:. Step 1: Perform Static analysis of the stress system and find out the nozzle loads required for checking local stresses.
Provide a file name for your job. Refer to Fig. Step 3: The following screen will appear. Enter the Nozzle data as shown in Fig. Step 4: Now enter the vessel details i. Step 5: Input vessel and Nozzle direction cosines, Internal design pressure and load and moments values from Caesar static analysis output Sustained, Expansion and occasional as applicable. Now click on analysis to read the results.
The output will inform you whether WRC checking is passing or failing. Use results as per your requirements.It also requires consideration of external loads such as those imposed by attached piping. Nozzles on heads where the geometry is beyond the limits of shallow shell theory are beyond the scope of the WRC methods. The WRC methods do not cover nozzles on blind flanges or flat heads.
API heat exchangers with nozzles on bolted covers can, however, be handled with our built-in FEA. Performing FEA with Codeware products is simple. Details input are automatically transferred to the FEA engine and the FEA results are included in the calculation report.
Competitors either charge extra for this feature or do not offer it at all. Many companies use the alternative rules of Division 2 because of the cost savings, versus Division 1. The rules of UCS guard against vessel failure by brittle fracture, a low probability high consequence event. The Vessel Wizard speeds pressure vessel design by creating complete pressure vessel models with minimal input. Use an accurate weight, the correct center of gravity, and apply the actual section properties with the Lifting and Rigging Analysis feature.
Design Mode saves time by reducing the trial and error iterations that would otherwise be required when designing pressure vessels. Performing hydrotest stress calculations in the design stage prevents equipment damage during hydrotesting. Attach menu allows designers to quickly include the mechanical effects of pressure vessel internals and attachments in their designs.
Certain industrial processes require pressure vessels to be built with multiple chambers operating under different design conditions. CC produces more economical Division 1 pressure vessel designs due to increased accuracy from the Division 2 design by rule equations. Request More Information. Featured Pressure Vessel Design Capabilities. Quick Design A new feature that speeds up the process of pressure vessel modeling. Division II Many companies use the alternative rules of Division 2 because of the cost savings, versus Division 1.
Vessel Wizard The Vessel Wizard speeds pressure vessel design by creating complete pressure vessel models with minimal input. Flange Wizard Create optimized Appendix 2 custom or body flange designs with minimal time and effort.Pso2 whiteal wings set bonus
Weld Seams Designers can visually confirm good practices such as staggered longitudinal seams. Design Mode Save time by reducing the trial and error iterations that would otherwise be required when designing pressure vessels.Armstreet models
Hydrotest Performing hydrotest stress calculations in the design stage prevents equipment damage during hydrotesting. Global External Loads The Loads Menu allows designers to easily consider global external loads when sizing pressure vessel supports. Clips and Lugs Designers can quickly include the mechanical effects of pressure vessel internals and attachments in their designs.
Stacked Vessels Certain industrial processes require pressure vessels with multiple chambers operating under different design conditions. Appendix 46 Produce more economical Div 1 pressure vessel designs with increased accuracy from the Div 2 design by rule equations. Support Skirt Openings Specify piping connections to vertical vessels that require additional piping and openings cut out of the support skirt.
Foundation Loads Summary Break down the loads for the specified vessel operating conditions including weight, wind, seismic, and vortex shedding.
Learn More. Division 2 Option Many companies use the alternative rules of Division 2 because of the cost savings, versus Division 1. Quick Design Enhance productivity by speeding up the process of pressure vessel modeling.
Design Mode Design Mode saves time by reducing the trial and error iterations that would otherwise be required when designing pressure vessels.
Clips and Lugs Attach menu allows designers to quickly include the mechanical effects of pressure vessel internals and attachments in their designs. Stacked Vessels Certain industrial processes require pressure vessels to be built with multiple chambers operating under different design conditions.
Code Case CC produces more economical Division 1 pressure vessel designs due to increased accuracy from the Division 2 design by rule equations. Go to Top.Log In. A question properly stated is a problem half solved. Always remember, free advice is worth exactly what you pay for it! Thank you for helping keep Eng-Tips Forums free from inappropriate posts. The Eng-Tips staff will check this out and take appropriate action. Click Here to join Eng-Tips and talk with other members!
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Hopper, and J. Mershon WRC Bulletin WRC has been replaced by WRC WRC Bulletin presents the results of an analytical and experimental research program aimed at providing methods for determining the stresses in pressure vessel nozzle connections subjected to various forms of external loadings.
Based on the work of P. Bijlaard, the Bulletin covers the sign conventions, parameters, calculation of stresses, nondimensional curves, and limitations on application for spherical and cylindrical shells and an abridged calculation for maximum stress in spherical shells. First published inWRC Bulletin was revised in,and Osage, M. Straub, M. Buchheim, D. Amos, T. Chiasson, D.All of the guesthouses provided pleasant, excellent services. They were all uniquely different from one another, as well.
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WRC 107 vs WRC 537
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WRC Bulletin 107(537) - CAESAR II - Help
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Check Nozzle Loads With WRC 537, WRC 107
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